Application Examples - Electric Fields

Application examples with Model Files available
An electrostatic simulation of a surge arrester
Minimising electric field stresses in surge arresters
Thermal characteristics of a 330 KV surge arrester
Simulating particle filtration with an electrostatic precipitator
An electrostatic simulation of a surge arrester
This surge arrester has 2 grading rings. It is formed of 2 electrodes: one at the top formed by a conducting metal rod and 2 conducting metal grading rings, and the other at the bottom forming the pedestal of the surge arrester.The potential of the top electrode and grading rings was set to 333 kV. The potential of the pedestal was set to 0. In between the 2 electrodes there are metal-oxide resistors surrounded by a porcelain housing. Metal disks separate the resistor-porcelain units.The outer radial boundary of the model was set to ground potential. The metal-oxide resistors were given a relative permittivity of 800, while a permittivity of 5 was chosen for the porcelain housings.

Open Report (Model 0066)

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Minimising electric field stress in surge arresters
The voltage distribution along the resistors in a surge arrester is uneven due to stray capacitances. It is possible to reduce the maximum electric field stress by a careful choice of position for the grading rings.

In this example, ElecNet is used with OptiNet to find where the rings should be placed, and what their dimensions should be, in order to minimise the total electric field stress in the resistors.

Open Report (Model 0089)

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Thermal characteristics of a 330 KV surge arrester
Surge arresters are used in a number of industries as protective devices against a variety of electrical events such as high-voltage lightning impulses. The design choices of various materials and components for lightning arresters may depend on their thermal characteristics, among many other factors. To demonstrate this, the thermal analysis of a 330kV metal-oxide arrester is considered in this example. The adiabatic heating of the varistor due to a lightning strike, and the subsequent temperature distribution in the device as a function of time, are presented here.

Open Report (Model 0182)

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Simulating particle filtration with an electrostatic precipitator
Consider the architecture of this electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or electrostatic air cleaner: it consists of an inlet-outlet casing through which particulate laden gas (such as air) flows into an area where a series of particulate collection sheets are placed.These sheets of metal are maintained at certain voltages, after passing through which completes the filtration process so that clean air is deposited at the other end of the casing.

Given a uniform, linear voltage distribution and separation of 1mm between the collection plates, a constant force is expected to be imparted on the charge.The model has been solved usingElecNet's3D electrostatic solvers and theTrajectory Evaluatoradd-on.

Open Report (Model 0161)

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Application Examples - Electric Fields
Other application examples (report only)
Electric field due to a pulsed voltage source
Simulating a cyclic electron path in a magnetron
Simulating a charged particle entering a quadrupole ion trap
Gas Insulated Switch
Electric field due to a pulsed voltage source
The 3D transient electric field simulation of a simple copper strip on a dielectric layer over a ground plane is described in this example. The analysis is in 3D since the copper strip is short and there is fringing of the electric field at the end of the strip.

The material chosen for the dielectric layer is slightly lossy, i.e., it has a small conductivity. The small conductivity is responsible for the conduction current that flows from the copper strip to the ground through the dielectric layer.

Since the conductive and capacitive effects in this device are both important, a time domain analysis is required.

Open Report (Model 0092)
Electric fields solved using the ElecNet software
Simulating a cyclic electron path in a magnetron
Magnetrons are typically used in microwave ovens and certain radar applications. The inside conductor is the cathode and the cylindrical shell on the outside is the anode. A coil is wrapped around the tube so that a magnetic field that is parallel to the axis of the tube is produced. The electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular to each other.

Electrons move from the cathode to the anode, they are forced to travel on a path that is bent due to the magnetic field.

The trajectory of an electron in a magnetron can be simulated based on the fields present in the space between the cathode and the anode.

Using MagNet, ElecNet and the Trajectory Evaluator, the electric and magnetic field strengths are adjusted so that the path of the electron does not reach the anode and forms a cyclic trajectory.

Open Report (Model 0095)

Simulating a charged particle entering a quadrupole ion trap
Using ElecNet and theTrajectory Evaluator add-on, the trajectories of charged particles entering a Quadrupole Ion Trap can be simulated.The results presented are based on a particle with an electric charge (of value -1.6e-29) being placed at the center of the ion trap while the side electrode is subjected to a frequency of 100 Hz.The electric field strength as well as the position, velocity and acceleration of the particle can be determined.

Open Report (Model 0162)

Gas insulated switch
To demonstrate the flexibility of Infolytica's suite of Electromagnetic and Thermal Analysis packages, we have taken this Gas Insulated Switch and simulated it under a variety of different loads and configurations. The analyses that each product is specifically designed to accomplish are as follows:
  • MagNet is used to determine the AC current flow through the switch in the closed position.
  • ElecNet is used to analyse the potential distribution in the open positions.

Open Report (Model 0105)